Novelty of RRI
Despite the relative novelty of the term itself, it is important to note that RRI can draw on a long history of activities. These include an array of options and methods that aim to clarify possible consequences of R&I activities, such as risk assessment (Kastenhofer, 2011), technology assessment (Grunwald, 2009) or other types of ethics or impact assessments (Wright, Gellert, Gutwirth, & Friedewald, 2011). Attempts to come to a better understanding of possible futures that inform the different types of assessment can be found in technology foresight (Georghiou, Harper, Keenan, Miles, & Popper, 2008; Martin, 2010) and other types of future studies (Sardar, 2010).
RRI and Responsibility
RRI is a complex term whose primary purpose is to help societies make difficult and often contested decisions with regards to R&I policy. RRI is based on a number of already existing responsibilities and its novelty and practical relevance is in the fact that these are treated as a whole that needs to be addressed in order to lead to desirable outcomes and contribution to grand challenges.
Relevance to ICT
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