ORBIT Journal 2020-08-10T13:14:12+01:00 Orbit Journal Open Journal Systems <p>The ORBIT Journal publishes original research and contributions in the area of responsible research and innovation in ICT.</p> Relationship between perceived self-reported trust in health information sources and ocular fixation in a sam-ple of young adults: a secondary data analysis. 2020-08-10T13:13:42+01:00 Livia Livint Popa Ovidiu Selejan Stefan Strilciuc Olivia Verisezan Rosu Maria Balea Fior Dafin Muresanu <p><strong>Introduction</strong></p> <p>We set out to explore the relationship between self-perceived trust and visual interaction with online information sources (websites), using eye tracking methods.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong></p> <p>The study is a secondary data analysis conducted on a snowball sample of 28 gender-balanced young adults with higher education degrees and intermediate or higher knowledge of English. We used a Pro T60XL monitor device to assess individual ocular reaction at 30-second exposure intervals to 20 health-related webpages.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>The websites received self-perceived trust marks ranging from 1 to 5 (mean=3.52, SD=0,422). A borderline strong statistically significant positive correlation (r=0.68, p=0.001) was found between logo fixations (LAOI) and self-reported trust rank. Websites that were ranked higher in terms of trust appear to be more likely to have a higher number of fixations on the logo. A moderate statistically significant positive correlation (r=0.526, p=0.017) was observed between fixations before the logo (FBL) and self-reported trust rank.</p> <p><strong>Discussion and conclusions</strong></p> <p>Measuring fixation is difficult to perform due to the heterogeneous character of experimental conditions. Graphic design elements (logos) are a main point of ocular focus and are associated with higher trust. Eye tracking shows promise as a tool for physiological assessment of behavioral patterns.</p> 2019-12-02T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Setting future ethical standards for ICT, Big Data, AI and robotics 2020-08-10T13:13:43+01:00 Josepine Fernow Inigo de Miguel Beriain Philip Brey Bernd Stahl <p>Policymakers struggle to assess the ethical, legal and human rights impacts of IT systems in research, industry, and at home. At the same time, research needs to be useful for industry, academia, and society to have impact on policy. Right now, three European projects: PANELFIT, SHERPA and SIENNA, are working together with stakeholders to improve ethical, human rights and legal frameworks for information and communication technologies (ICT), big data analytics, artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics. Stakeholder involvement is key, and the outputs will support the European Union’s vision of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI), as a means to foster the design of inclusive research and innovation. Here, we provide a short introduction to the projects and outline plans for collaboration with the aim to maximiseour joint policy impact.</p> 2019-07-02T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Practicing responsible research and innovation in a crowdsourcing project in Norway 2020-08-10T13:13:43+01:00 Selamawit Molla Fossum Line Barkved Harald Throne-Holst <p>The paper discusses the operationalization of responsible research and innovation (RRI), drawing on empirical materials from a research project that explored ICT-enabled tools and methods for crowdsourcing in urban environmental research and decision-making. An integrated model for RRI is developed from prior studies, in which socially responsible crowdsourcing is described as an iterative and recursive process of inclusion, anticipation, reflexivity and responsiveness on the purpose, process, product and people components of the crowdsourcing project. The paper outlines four important aspects that influence the practice of RRI: time,<br>interdisciplinary skills and capacities, design flexibility of ICT tools and strategic alliances between researchers and public officials. Theoretically, the paper contributes with an integrated conceptual model that further extends the already existing RRI framework.</p> 2019-05-13T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## I am a Person 2020-08-10T13:13:43+01:00 David Kreps Oliver K Burmeister <p>This paper presents a conception of personhood as both physical and social, and both as radically contingent upon their respective physical and social environments. In the context of age-related cognitive decline it supports literature suggesting social personhood is occluded rather than deteriorating with brain function. Reviewing the literature on value sensitive design (VSD) as applied to assistive technologies for people with age-related cognitive decline, it finds an exclusive focus upon physical support. The paper concludes that issues of power must be grasped by those in VSD practice in order to reorient VSD in assistive technologies to support social personhood in those with age-related cognitive decline.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ethics of Public Use of AI and Big Data 2020-08-10T13:13:48+01:00 Mark Ryan <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Smart information systems (Big Data and artificial intelligence) are used by governments to improve mobility, reduce over-crowdedness in hotspots, and provide more effective management of crowds. I looked at how Amsterdam municipality is using smart information systems (SIS) in their DrukteRadar Project to identify, report, and tackle issues surrounding crowdedness levels in the city. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">SIS are becoming popular amongst governmental officials to automate activities more effectively. SIS provide the opportunity to improve mobility, increase economic growth, reduce energy outputs, improve management decisions, respond to disasters quicker, and improve citizens’ quality of life. They offer governments the possibility of improving services, while reducing costs. The use and implementation of SIS is becoming widespread and governments are observing the benefits posed by SIS, particularly in relation to urban management. &nbsp;</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">80% of Europe’s population will live in cities by 2020 and governments face a huge strain on resources and infrastructure. The use of SIS is being pioneered to help governments meet these needs and to provide a sustainable future for urban citizens. Ethical issues in this context can include that data may not be accurate, faithful or representative of a city and its citizens, which may cause bias, prejudice and harm to a population, by leading to unfair service provision. ICT companies’ involvement in governmental SIS projects may also lead to technological lock-in and dependency on corporations. Instantaneous and ubiquitous retrieval and analysis of data may infringe upon citizens’ privacy and may lead vulnerabilities of malicious hacking, stolen data and a city’s security.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">To uncover if these issues correlate with the experience of those working in the field, I interviewed the Project Owner of Amsterdam’s DrukteRadar project (translated as crowdedness project). This project implements SIS to anticipate and prevent overcrowding in Amsterdam, and was created in response to growing pressures on the city’s amenities. The DrukteRadar Project collates a wide array of datasets to predict crowd levels and potential problem hotspots, visualised through a digital dashboard. The project aims to improve municipality management, provide help to tourists planning their trips, and assisting citizens’ navigation through the city.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Through my discussions with the Project Owner of the DrukteRadar, I uncovered two additional issues not found in the literature: access to SIS and data ownership. The DrukteRadar team is concerned about access to SIS to promote fairness, equality, and provision of services amongst citizens. It aims to make its dashboard user-friendly and available to as many people as possible to promote inclusion. Data ownership is a concern for the project – who owns the data and what can be done with it. The DrukteRadar Project ensures they have data sovereignty, so that they do not become technologically locked-in to relationships with private organisations. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The Project Owner was aware that inaccurate of data may lead to discriminatory recommendations and harmful consequences. The DrukteRadar Project tries to minimise their algorithmic inaccuracy through extensive monitoring; secure technical infrastructure; and stakeholder review sessions. Another interesting finding was identifying how projects ensure privacy protection of its citizens. The DrukteRadar ensures that data is not traceable to individuals and the use of datasets follow privacy-by-design principles. The project also has strong security protocols, cyber-security measures, anonymization techniques, and repeated vulnerability tests. Overall, my report was able to evaluate how ethical issues found within the SIS literature correlate to those identified, and tackled, in practice. as well as highlighting the two additional concerns not explicitly mentioned in the literature.</span></p> 2019-02-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Smart Information Systems in Cybersecurity 2020-08-10T13:13:47+01:00 Kevin Macnish Ana Fernandez Inguanzo Alexey Kirichenko <p>This report provides an overview of the current implementation of SIS in the field of cybersecurity. It also identifies the positive and negative aspects of using SIS in cybersecurity, including ethical issues which could arise while using SIS in this area. One company working in the industry of telecommunications (Company A) is analysed in this report. Further specific ethical issues that arise when using SIS technologies in Company A are critically evaluated. Finally, conclusions are drawn on the case study and areas for improvement are suggested.</p> 2019-02-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Insurance, Smart Information Systems and Ethics 2020-08-10T13:13:47+01:00 Natalija Kancevičienė <p>This report provides an overview of the current implementation of SIS in the insurance industry, also identifies the positive and negative aspects of using SIS in the insurance industry, including ethical issues which could arise while using SIS in this area. Two companies working in the industry of health insurance are analysed in this report: a German health insurance company (Organisation Y), and a business intelligence centre for healthcare insurers (Organisation X). Further specific ethical issues that arise when using SIS technologies in Organisation Y and Organisation X are critically evaluated. Finally, conclusions are drawn on the case study and areas for improvement are suggested.</p> 2019-02-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Smart Grids and Ethics 2020-08-10T13:13:46+01:00 Tally Hatzakis Rowena Rodrigues Wright David <p>This case study explores the principal ethical issues that occur in the use of Smart Information Systems (SIS) in smart grids and offers suggestions as to how they might be addressed. Key issues highlighted in the literature are reviewed. The empirical case study describesone of the largest distribution system operators (DSOs) in the Netherlands . The aim of this case study is to identify which ethical issues arise from the use of SIS in smart grids, the current efforts ofthe organisation to address them, and whether practitioners are facing additional issues not addressed in current literature. The literature review highlights mainly ethical issues around health and safety, privacy and informed consent, cyber-risks and energy security, affordability and equity, sustainability. The key topics raised by interviewees revolved around privacy and to some extent cybersecurity. This may be due to the prevalence of the issue within the sector and the company in particular or due to the positions held by interviewees in the organisation. Issues of sectorial dynamics and public trust, codes of conduct and regulation were raised in the interviewswhich are not discussed in the literature. The paper hence highlights the ability of case studies to identify ethical issues not covered (or covered to an inadequate degree) in the academic literature which are facing practitioners in the energy sector.</p> 2019-02-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ethics of Using AI and Big Data in Agriculture: The Case of a Large Agriculture Multinational 2020-08-10T13:13:46+01:00 Mark Ryan <p>Smart information systems (Big Data and artificial intelligence) are used in the <strong>agricultural industry</strong> to help the planting, seeding, and harvesting of crops, as well as farm management, plant and livestock illness and disease detection. I looked at how a Digital Division at a large agricultural multinational is using smart information systems (SIS), through their SISproject, to provide farmers with local weather predictions, farm efficiency and sustainability metrics, and early detection systems for weed, pests and disease. SIS being used in agriculture, types of data retrieved from the farm, how this data is analysed, and agribusinesses involved in this burgeoning field. Agricultural SIS has the potential to <strong>automate activities</strong> that are typically done by agronomists, allowing for cost reductions, quick and effective crop forecasting, and improved decision-making and efficiency for the farmer. Agricultural SIS also offers agribusinesses an additional revenue, better customer-relations, and reduced costs from hiring additional agronomists and advisors. The world’s population will exceed 9 billion by 2050, forcing the agricultural sector to increase its production levels by up to 70%. SIS are being hailed as one possible solution to help plant, seed, harvest, and manage farms better and more effectively. However, the use of agricultural SIS may create a number of ethical concerns. For example, the <strong>accuracy of data and recommendations</strong> provided by SIS may lead to lost harvests, ill livestock, and loss of earnings. There is also a tension between ensuring an agribusinesses’ <strong>intellectual property</strong> and the protection of the farmer’s <strong>data ownership</strong>. The use of SIS is relatively expensive, which may create a <strong>digital divide</strong>. Agricultural Big Data is also vulnerable to <strong>privacy and security</strong> threats because it could be used nefariously by corrupt governments, competitors, or even market traders. Sensors, robots and devices may cause harm, distress, and damage to <strong>animal welfare and the environment</strong>.To assess if these ethical issues mirror those experienced in the field, I interviewed three members of this company working on their SIS project. This project combines data retrieved from the farmer with the company’s agronomic knowledge to <strong>manage their farm more effectively</strong>. The project was designed to provide farmers with local weather predictions, plant disease in situ detection, and recommendation tools to minimise risk, crop and yield previews, farm efficiency and sustainability metrics, and early detection systems for weed, pests and disease. One of the primary motivations for using SIS technology for the company is the ability to make the farmer’s life easier, more productive, and to <strong>save costs</strong>. The aim is to improve farm management, not by increasing fertilizer use, but by more intelligent farming decisions and practices.</p> <p>The ethical issues faced in the project strongly correlated with those in the literature, with the addition of <strong>employment</strong>. The general public is concerned that SIS will replace human jobs, such as the agronomist, but the team stated that their SIS is intended to complement the human expert, rather than replace them. <strong>Accuracy and availability of data</strong> proved to be an issue because not all farmers had available data and data retrieved from third-parties may not be accurate. The team ensure that their customers’ <strong>privacy</strong>is protected by having strong <strong>security</strong> measures to avoid misuse and hacking. <strong>Data ownership</strong> belongs to the farmer and they can move to a different farm management system supplier, with that data, if they choose to. The tool is free to use to avoid the issue of a <strong>digital divide</strong>. The company incorporate a strong <strong>sustainability</strong> agenda into their SIS, developing it from the European PEF (Product Environmental Footprint) and a Life-cycle assessment (LCA) framework. Overall, my report was able to evaluate how ethical issues found within the SIS literature correlate with those identified, and tackled, in practice.</p> 2019-02-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ethics of Using Smart City AI and Big Data: The Case of Four Large European Cities 2020-08-10T13:13:46+01:00 Mark Ryan Anya Gregory <p>2030, the population living in cities will increase by an additional 1.5 billion people, placing a great strain on resources, infrastructure, jobs and healthcare (UN 2018). It has become clear that to combat this change, a number of creative approaches need to be put in place to ensure the sustainable growth of cities - one such approach is the ‘smart city’ (UN 2018). Due to the relative infancy of smart cities, and the diversity of approaches and implementations of smart information systems (<strong>Big Data and AI</strong>),many of the ethical challenges are still being defined.</p> <p>One of the reasons behind this challenge is a result of the varying <strong>smart information systems (SIS)</strong> being used in different urban contexts. This case study aspires to unpack some of these ethical challenges by looking at four different applications of SIS being deployed in large European cities: an AI used to understand citizens’ complaints (<strong>Amsterdam</strong>), a parking permit chat-bot (<strong>Helsinki</strong>), a platform for data exchange (<strong>Copenhagen</strong>), and a project with an open-source algorithm (<strong>Hamburg</strong>).Upon first glance, these technologies seem very disparate, but they all factor into the equation of what goes into making a smart city, ‘smart’.</p> <p>Over the course of the interviews, what quickly became clear was the degree to whichsmart cities are in their infancy, meaning that the <strong>availability and accuracy of data</strong> remains an issue in a large majority of the cases. In terms of the <strong>accuracy of recommendations</strong> – due to the early stages of smart city implementation, many projects remain wary of expanding the use of SIS, due to potential unforeseen issues and are therefore proceeding cautiously.</p> <p><strong>Data</strong> has been taken on as a potentially helpful tool for citizens and planners alike to regain control and access to information within their respective cities. <strong>Consent, transparency and data ownership</strong> featured as prominent ethical considerations in all cases, especially the focus on citizens regaining control over their own data. Further, it remained a point of contention to whom the data would belong – with an overall consensus that data should remain the property of the citizen or municipality and not necessarily that of private companies.</p> <p>Throughout the process, it became clear that<strong> collaboration</strong> is at the heart of a successful smart city. Many of the projects utilised a collaborative <strong>public-private</strong> model to facilitate both the business development side and the<strong> citizen-engagement </strong>sides of the smart city. With differing degrees of success in the individual projects, this remained an important feature that experts believe will continue to develop in tandem with smart city projects. A bottom-up approach is clearly the most effective way to ensure that a smart city works and is used by its citizens.</p> <p>Overall, this case study offers valuable insights into the development of smart cities in a European context: including the use and implementation of SIS in urban environments, what kinds of ethical issues are evaluated in the literature and how they contrast and diverge from those faced by professionals in practice. It is hoped that this case study will offer practitioners, policymakers, smart city organisations, and private ICT companies interesting observations about a more ethically-responsible approach towards SIS implementation in smart city projects.</p> 2019-02-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Case Study : The Internet of Things and Ethics 2020-08-10T13:13:45+01:00 Josephina Antoniou Andreas Andreou <p>The Internet of Things (IoT) may be defined as a network of networks, where the end devices are not user-handled devices but can be computing devices, mechanical and digital machines. In many businesses, IoT-based software is used increasingly as a means to deliver enhanced customer service and improved business management procedures. By using IoT to monitor business operations, through tracking-capable software, businesses are, for instance, able to track products and employees. The issue is further explored through literature review and a case study of a company developing IoT based monitoring software.</p> <p>The review focuses on the effects of using IoT as part of Smart Information Systems, especially systems supported by 5G networks in the near future. The effects on the users of SIS are referred to by the term Quality of Experience (QoE) and the specific effects of 5G networks on QoE are discussed in this background review. Since the user experience is also affected by such actions as employee and asset monitoring with the use of IoT, a brief overview of legal aspects follows the technological details of QoE in an IoT-aware 5G system. The legal/human rights analysis is presented through the literature, and takes into account some suggestions for guidelines and policies on monitoring is offered. A discussion on ethics and perceptions around monitoring and tracking is further presented.</p> <p>The CRM.COM case focuses thereafter on how the company provides tracking software as a service and as a product for businesses nationally and in several countries worldwide. The case study discusses the ethics of such IoT-powered software, by considering both their design and their usage.</p> <p>Overall, the area of using IoT-based tracking and monitoring applications to assist and enhance specific business processes is growing and becoming increasingly popular, both in terms of development and use. Being a new research area, however, it lacks sufficient literature that examines the ethical, social, economic and legal implications of the use of this technology. Such studies into the design, development and use of such IoT-based applications present important relevant information that enriches the state-of-the-art literature on the topic both from an academic and a practical perspective.</p> <p>This report offers an original case study on the use of an IoT related SIS in the software design and development area. Many of the ethical and legal issues discussed in this report have been analysed more generally within academia and assessed in other areas of application, but have rarely been associated with the IoT usage for tracking and monitoring. Therefore, this report will be highly valuable for the development and furthering of theory, knowledge and application for designing, developing and using such IoT based applications.</p> 2019-02-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ethical Implications of Predictive Risk Intelligence 2020-08-10T13:13:45+01:00 Tilimbe Jiya <p>This paper presents a case study on the ethical issues that relate to the use of Smart Information Systems (SIS) in predictive risk intelligence. The case study is based on a company that is using SIS to provide predictive risk intelligence in supply chain management (SCM), insurance, finance and sustainability. Thepaper covers an assessment of how the company recognises ethical concerns related to SIS and the ways it deals with them. Data was collected through a document review and two in-depth semi-structured interviews.Results from the case study indicate that the main ethical concerns with the use of SIS in predictive risk intelligence include protection of the data being used in predicting risk, data privacy and consent from those whose data has been collected from data providers such as social media sites. Also, there are issues relating to the transparency and accountability of processes used in predictive intelligence. The interviews highlighted the issue of bias in using the SIS for making predictions for specific target clients. The last ethical issue was related to trust and accuracy of the predictions of the SIS. In response to these issues,the company has put in place different mechanisms to ensure responsible innovation through what it calls Responsible Data Science. Under Responsible Data Science, the identified ethical issues are addressed by following a code of ethics, engaging with stakeholders and ethics committees.This paper is important because it provides lessons for the responsible implementation of SIS in industry, particularly for start-ups. The paper acknowledges ethical issues with the use of SIS in predictive risk intelligence and suggests that ethics should be a central consideration for companies and individuals developing SIS to create meaningful positive change for society.</p> 2019-02-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ethical Reflections of Human Brain Research and Smart Information Systems 2020-08-10T13:13:44+01:00 Tilimbe Jiya <p>This case study explores ethical issues that relate to the use of Smart Information Systems (SIS) in human brain research. The case study is based on the Human Brain Project (HBP), which is a European Union funded project. The project uses SIS to build a research infrastructure aimed at the advancement of neuroscience, medicine and computing. The case study was conducted to assess how the HBP recognises and deal with ethical concerns relating to the use of SIS in human brain research. To understand some of the ethical implications of using SIS in human brain research, data was collected through a document review and three semi-structured interviews with participants from the HBP. Results from the case study indicate that the main ethical concerns with the use of SIS in human brain research include privacy and confidentiality, the security of personal data, discrimination that arises from bias and access to the SIS and their outcomes.</p> <p>Furthermore, there is an issue with the transparency of the processes that are involved in human brain research. In response to these issues, the HBP has put in place different mechanisms to ensure responsible research and innovation through a dedicated program. The paper provides lessons for the responsible implementation of SIS in research, including human brain research and extends some of the mechanisms that could be employed by researchers and developers of SIS for research in addressing such issues.</p> 2019-02-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Customer Relation Management, Smart Information Systems and Ethics 2020-08-10T13:13:44+01:00 Kevin Macnish Ana Fernandez Inguanzo <p>Smart information systems (SIS - Big Data and artificial intelligence) are used in Customer Relations Management (CRM) to help manage large customer databases and improve customer interaction by companies. This case study involves research into the Finnish telecommunications provider Company A regarding their use of SIS in developing CRM. This they use primarily for assessing “churn”, the drop-off rate of customers choosing not to re-subscribe to Company A services, and for improving customer service by monitoring customer activity on Company A’s website. SIS has the potential to improve both of these areas through developing an understanding based on patterns of behaviour.</p> <p>A literature review of ethical issues facing the use of SIS in CRM reveals that there are a number of such issues. These include autonomy, control and manipulation of people, privacy, customer knowledge as to what happens with data pertaining to them, algorithmic bias, responsibility of companies, governments and individuals, trust and informed consent. The interview held at Company A demonstrated that many of these issues are recognised and encountered by practitioners operating in SIS. Informed consent and trust were not discussed in the interview while global approaches to ethics was raised in the interview in a manner not seen in the literature review.</p> <p>Overall, this case study evaluates how ethical issues found within the SIS literature correlate with those identified, and tackled, in the business practice of CRM</p> 2019-02-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Computers as omnipotent instruments of power 2020-08-10T13:13:48+01:00 Karsten Weber <p>With examples concerning the development and dissemination of computer technology in the Soviet Union, the U.S., and other Western countries it shall be demonstrated that computer development on the one hand and social change as well as changes in policy making and administration on the other hand are mingled with each other without a clear direction of causation being discernible. It also shall be shown that perceived social and political threats imposed by early computer technology sometimes actually helped to stop or at least slow down social change. One conclusion that can be drawn from the case studies described for RRI is that the conscious steering of innovations fails because of diffuse and uncoordinated resistance from very different stakeholders. The case studies also suggest that the effectiveness of RRI might be rather limited.</p> 2019-01-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Understanding Ethics and Human Rights in Smart Information Systems 2020-08-10T13:13:49+01:00 Kevin Macnish Mark Ryan Bernd Stahl <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Smart information systems (SIS), systems based in machine learning approaches to artificial intelligence using big data analytics are high profile examples of emerging technologies that have the potential to significantly affect most aspects of personal and societal life in industrialised societies. They are the subject of much scientific research but also of large amount of philosophical and sociological studies. A key question they raise relates to ethical questions they may raise which can involve questions of human rights. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The majority of these reflective approaches to SIS are based on anecdotal evidence or conceptual considerations. There is little research investigating the actual ethical issues these technologies raise in their real-world environments. Rigorous empirical research tends to focus on particular technologies or application examples. While such research can produce interesting insights, it is not sufficient to give a broader overview of these technologies. One reason is that the technologies and components involved as well as the applications of such SIS vary greatly. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">One way of overcoming this limited view of ethics and human rights of SIS that is based on rigorous empirical research while providing a broad overview of technologies is to undertake a set of parallel case studies that provides simultaneous insights into a range of technologies. This paper outlines the rational and principles according to which such a multiple case study can be undertaken. It describes the process of selection of cases and development of the methodology as represented by a case study protocol. It provides the rationale and methodological underpinning for the set of 10 case studies that are published in the same special section of the ORBIT journal. </span><span style="font-weight: 400;"><br></span></p> 2018-10-29T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Issues of Implied Trust in Ethical Hacking 2020-08-10T13:13:49+01:00 Georg Thomas Oliver Burmeister Gregory Low <p>This paper discusses the issues of implied trust in ethical hacking. Unlike many other long-established professions, such as lawyers, doctors, and accountants; ethical hacking is a relatively new profession. As a result, this profession does not currently have a uniformed or mandated code, nor does it require any form of licensing. Because ethical hackers could gain access to highly sensitive and confidential information and there is potential for misuse of such information, the need to ensure professionalism is maintained through ensuring competence and ethical behavior is critical. &nbsp;</p> 2018-10-29T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## RRI in Higher Education 2020-08-10T13:13:50+01:00 Margherita Nulli Bernd Stahl <p>Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) is a way to promote ethical and socially desirable research. The concept of RRI has recently become more important. Public research funders have embedded RRI principles in their policies and now it is time for higher education institutions to embrace this principles as well. With this in mind, the following editorial summarizes the work that has been done so far to integrate RRI principles into higher education. Since teaching RRI is one of the key activities to implement its principles in higher education, our focus will be also be on how to successfully deliver the teaching of responsible research. Finally, an overview of the major problems that the implementation of RRI in higher education encounters and possible suggestions will be discussed. These are important questions to be asked from the perspective of the ORBIT project, which aims to foster a culture of RRI in the UK ICT research community. Ensuring that RRI is adequately covered is a necessary condition of success for this culture shift.</p> 2018-06-26T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Taking a historical website into the present. 2020-08-10T13:13:50+01:00 Virginia Knight <p>This case style describes the ethical issues raised by allowing user in-teraction with a historical website (‘Hidden Lives Revealed’) on the subject of children in care, and the practical steps which need to be taken as a result by those maintaining the site.</p> 2018-06-25T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Voluntary measures, participation and fundamental rights in the governance of research and innovation 2020-08-10T13:13:51+01:00 Guido Gorgoni <p>Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) aims at being a new governance paradigm aiming at steering the innovation process in a participative manner by constructing responsibility as a shared process between innovators and societal stakeholders, rather than a remedy to its failures. In order to achieve those goals, RRI implements a collaborative and inclusive process between innovators and societal stakeholders, widely based on the idea of granting a wider participation of societal actors to the innovation process. The purpose of steering the research and innovation processes through participation of societal actors is one of the distinguishing characteristics of RRI approach, which this way aims at taking into account the increasing political implications of scientific innovation. In order to do so, RRI model promotes governance strategies focusing on actors’ responsibilisation, which make appeal to actors’ capacity of reciprocal commitment towards some common goals not mandated by the law. Whilst voluntary non-binding regulatory approaches seem to be the ‘natural’ way to implement RRI in practice, nevertheless some concern remains about the scope and the limits of the contextual agreements reached each time, in particular their capacity to grant respect to some fundamental values, which are part of the European political and legal culture, and which are at risk to become freely re-negotiable within the RRI context if we base it only on the idea of autonomy, participation and consent. On the contrary, the paper argues that, if it wants to be coherent with its premises, RRI governance model needs to be complemented with a reference to fundamental rights, in order to give normative anchor-points to the confrontations between divergent views and values accompanying the development of technological innovation.</p> 2018-06-25T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## RRI in Industry 2020-08-10T13:13:51+01:00 Bernd Stahl <p>The concept of responsible research and innovation has its origin in publicly funded research. Much of the research activities and even more innovation activities which bring products and services happen in private companies. This editorial therefore aims to outline what RRI can mean in industrial complexes and describes the role that ORBIT can play in them. It draws on the work undertaken in the European project ‘Responsible-Industry’ and highlights the question of how the RRI discourse can be translated into a vocabulary familiar to companies.</p> 2018-04-13T23:22:57+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tackling global health challenges with telemedicine 2020-08-10T13:13:52+01:00 Karsten Bolz <p>This case study showcases the development of the telemedical diabetes monitoring system GlucoTel™ as a learning case for RRI in ICT. It therefore links the activities along the development process with RRI aspects, such as stakeholder engagement or open access. By taking a business perspective, the study shows that the integration of RRI principles into company processes not only benefits patients, caregivers and other users but can also have benefits for the company, such as competitive advantage. In addition, the case study takes a global perspective and outlines the potential of telemedicine for coping with the global societal challenge of diabetes and secondary diseases which are a major health care problem worldwide.</p> 2018-03-30T00:07:54+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Co-Creating Smart Cities 2020-08-10T13:13:52+01:00 Karsten Bolz <p>This case study describes the T-City initiative and uses it as a best practice example of how to include Responsible Research and Innovation into the transformation process connected with making cities ‘smart’. The initiative aimed to showcase how modern information and communication technology can sustainably improve the quality of life and community living in the city of Friedrichshafen. Starting with a general description of the initiative the case study then focuses on the project area ‘Health and Support’ and examines two specific projects to illustrate best practice for Responsible Research and Innovation. It shows that the goals and perspectives of different stakeholders can be united and that win-win-situations can be generated. The T-City initiative was an inclusive approach in which societal actors worked together during innovation processes and became mutually responsive to each other to co-create the smart city of Friedrichshafen.</p> 2018-03-30T00:07:43+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Using an ICT tool to stimulate multi-disciplinary innovation teams in establishing responsible research and innovation practices in industry 2020-08-10T13:13:53+01:00 Steven Flipse <p>This case study demonstrates that industry researchers can productively work with experts from the social sciences / humanities to integrate principles of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) into actual, on-going industrial innovation projects. The case presents the first example of collaborative, interdisciplinary and integrated innovation project management that is supported by an ICT tool with the aim of stimulating RRI. It is also the first case that presents both qualitative and quantitative data demonstrating enhanced socially responsible innovation with combined attention to technical, economic and social aspects.</p> <p>The tool, in the form of an online innovation project support dashboard, helps researchers understand and appreciate ‘soft’ project aspects regarding communication and socio-ethical context as well as relevance, by measuring and visualising the impact of such aspects in relation to innovation project success. As such, the tool can be used to enable researchers to develop into more ‘reflective practitioners’ who take responsible innovation as a starting point rather than an add-on to technical innovation.</p> 2018-03-30T00:07:37+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## AmbiAct 2020-08-10T13:13:54+01:00 Thomas Frenken Ralf Eckert Alexander Jüptner Andreas Hein <p>The ambiact is a smart meter for social alarm systems. This innovative product is designed as a plug-adapter and can be placed between the power outlet and any appliance. If a connected appliance is not used for an individually untypically amount of time, (generally for more than 24 hours), the ambiact automatically generates an emergency call. This provides people living alone (especially the elderly) with more safety in their homes since help is called even if it cannot be actively summoned by themselves. People feel an increased quality of life since daily manual handling of care phones is no longer necessary, and social alarm operators get more satisfied customers and can even save costs by avoiding false alarms due to people forgetting regular handlings of their care phone. The impact achieved by the project was the development of an innovative and patented product which is accepted by both the customer (e.g. care providers) and the end-user.</p> 2018-03-30T00:07:24+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An Ethical Analysis of Personal Health Monitoring in the UK 2020-08-10T13:13:54+01:00 Brent Mittelstadt <p>Recent years have seen an influx of medical technologies capable of remotely monitoring the health and behaviours of individuals to detect, manage and prevent health problems.&nbsp; Known collectively as ‘Personal Health Monitoring’ (PHM), these systems are intended to supplement medical care with health monitoring outside traditional care environments such as hospitals.&nbsp; In the face of ageing demographics across the EU, such technologies are seen as a promising way to close the predicted gap between healthcare demand and resources.&nbsp; Medical care and monitoring currently provided by humans may be supplemented by technological monitoring, creating new ways of delivering healthcare to the elderly, homebound, chronically ill and healthy alike.&nbsp; However, the implications of introducing technological monitoring into healthcare need to be considered in greater detail before the technologies are widely used.&nbsp; PHM allows for greater collection of personal health data about users, which may raise ethical concerns.&nbsp; As an emerging technology with the potential for widespread usage across Europe and beyond, the opportunity remains for PHM to be developed and deployed responsibly by adhering to the principles of Responsible Research &amp; Innovation (RRI). To contribute to this process an interview study with potential users and healthcare professionals was carried out in the UK.&nbsp; Twenty-one stakeholders were interviewed from patient groups and healthcare professionals representing medical conditions targeted by PHM: diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dementia.&nbsp; A series of recommendations on how to address the ethical implications and concerns of stakeholders are provided for members of industry responsible for developing PHM devices and services.&nbsp; Nine recommendations were identified:</p> <ul> <li>Offer devices and services with user feedback and recommendations for better health</li> <li>Limit user access to raw monitoring data</li> <li>Offer multiple levels of summarised feedback to users</li> <li>Create open channels of communication with users</li> <li>Do not view monitors as a replacement for staff</li> <li>Give users control over their devices</li> <li>Capture contextual information to support monitoring data</li> <li>Take a minimal approach to contextual data</li> <li>Discuss the extent and implications of monitoring with users</li> </ul> <p>The work described here is a first broad step in the RRI process which can contribute to the development and deployment of any PHM devices and services.&nbsp; The study can be understood as a broad ethical foresight study achieved through engagement with PHM stakeholders, including patients, doctors and healthcare organisations.&nbsp; Each of the five RRI principles described by the European Commission was adhered to (see: Appendix 1), providing an example of how development and deployment can be performed responsibly with the involvement of stakeholders.</p> 2018-03-30T00:07:15+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## My Brain Book 2020-08-10T13:13:55+01:00 Nada Savitch <p>This case study provides an example of industry working closely with both the public sector and the people it aims to assist. It also shows how industry can lead the way in listening to a group of people who often have no voice in wider society: people with dementia. The case study describes the ways in which people with dementia and their carers have been involved in a number of different and creative ways in the initial development and testing of a working prototype of a computer-based planning tool for people with the initial development and testing of a working prototype of a computer-based planning tool for people with dementia and their carers. The tool, called My Brain Book, aims to record information about the person with dementia in order to produce a care plan that is created jointly between the person with dementia and their families, and shared easily with a range of professionals. Engagement activities included: a parallel priority setting event, focus groups, involvement in design workshops and testing of the prototype. The involvement of people with dementia has directly influenced the development of the product and also changed the way ICT researchers and professionals see people with dementia. People with dementia convinced the designers that more emphasis should be given to elements of the system which enable families and professionals to really get to know the person with dementia before any care planning process begins. The design process and timelines were also influenced by people with dementia in order to ensure that they could be involved in meaningful ways. There are still many lessons to be learnt about the best ways for a responsible health and care industry to engage with people. This case study shows that with the right combination of support, customer engagement is possible and does lead to better products.</p> 2018-03-30T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The ORBIT Self-Assessment Tool 2020-08-10T13:13:55+01:00 Bernd Stahl <p>The self-assessment tool is one of the services provided by the ORBIT project. This editorial explains the background and principles of implementation and discusses the current state of development. It reviews possible strengths and weaknesses and charts the course of further development.</p> 2017-12-11T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ethical Design Fiction 2020-08-10T13:13:56+01:00 Thessa Jensen Peter Vistisen <p>In this paper we examine how ethical challenges can be approached in and through design fiction. To do so, we develop a new framework for analysis as well as creation of design fictions. Our main focus will be on design fiction within a strategical setting, connecting the notion of design fiction to the design process within large corporations as well as strategic design and decision making. Three cases are presented to support our findings. The final contribution will be the design fiction framework found in the conclusion.</p> 2017-11-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Incorporating a Critical Reasoning Component into the ICT–Ethics Methodological Framework 2020-08-10T13:13:56+01:00 Herman T Tavani <p>Is the standard/classic applied–ethics model used by philosophers adequate for analyzing issues in information and communication technology (ICT) ethics? A number of critics have argued that it is not, claiming instead that we need to revise and possibly also expand upon that model. In the various proposals advanced so far, however, no one has questioned whether we need to include an explicit critical reasoning (CR) component as part of an adequate ICT–ethics methodological framework. The purpose of the present study is to show why having such a component is not only useful but perhaps critical to ICT–ethics analysis. After defining what I mean by CR, and describing how it differs significantly from both formal logic and critical thinking, I show why incorporating a CR component can help us to achieve four of our key objectives as ICT–ethics professionals/instructors. First, CR provides us with a clear and systematic method for spotting logical fallacies, some of which might not initially seem either obvious or intuitive, in the various arguments that have been advanced to influence social policies affecting ICT. Second, CR provides us with techniques for testing our own arguments to ensure that they do not contain any logical fallacies. Third, CR provides us with a clear and fairly rigorous methodology for not only avoiding fallacies but also for constructing strong arguments to defend the views we advance. Finally, infusing a CR component into ICT–ethics courses will aid instructors in teaching their students how to detect and avoid logical fallacies, as well as teaching them how to construct strong arguments to defend their own positions on issues.</p> 2017-11-07T12:10:31+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Digital Privacy: Leibniz 2.0 2020-08-10T13:13:57+01:00 Wade L. Robison <p>In 1963, Chief Justice Earl Warren called the ‘fantastic advances in the field of electronic communication’ a danger to the privacy of the individual. If we use the privacy torts as developed in American law — intrusion, disclosure, false light, appropriation — we can see how dangerous those advances have been regarding our privacy. We will see how readily so many can do so much more to invade the privacy of so many more. We will also see a thread running through the privacy torts that was not readily visible before: invasions of privacy treat us as objects to be observed, revealed, manipulated, and used.</p> 2017-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Exploring simulated game worlds 2020-08-10T13:13:57+01:00 Catherine Flick L. Meghan Dennis Andrew Reinhard <p><em>No Man’s Sky</em> is an open world space procedural exploration game which allows players to traverse space in space ships, land on and explore planets. A group of archaeogamers (archaeologists interested in video games for varying reasons) decided to treat the game as an archaeological site, and within the <em>No Man’s Sky </em>Archaeological Survey explore, catalogue findings, and analyze objects and constructs within the game from an archaeological perspective. One of the aspects of this activity was to create a Code of Ethics – this paper describes the creation of the Code, the difficulties in implementation of the Code, and offers some recommendations to game developers who wish to encourage similar archaeological exploration within their own games.&nbsp;</p> 2017-10-24T10:28:25+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## From a Science Fiction to the Reality 2020-08-10T13:13:58+01:00 Kiyoshi Murata Andrew A Adams Yasunori Fukuta Yohko Orito Mario Arias-Oliva Jorge Pelegrin-Borondo <p>This study deals with young people’s attitudes towards and social acceptance of “cyborg technology” including wearables and insideables (or implantable devices) to enhance human ability in Japan as part of the international research project on cyborg ethics, taking Japanese socio-cultural characteristics surrounding cyborg technology into consideration. Those subjects were investigated through questionnaire surveys of Japanese university students, which was conducted in November and December 2016. The survey results demonstrated respondents’ relatively low resistance to using wearables and insideables to improve human physical ability and intellectual power. On the other hand, the morality of insideables were questioned by respondents. In various aspects, statistically significant differences in attitudes towards the technologies between genders were detected.</p> 2017-10-24T10:28:12+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Callisto As a Value Agent 2020-08-10T13:13:58+01:00 Stephen Lilley Amanda Moras <p>In this paper, we offer a case study of Callisto, an online site for sexual assault reporting, to highlight innovations in value design. We compare Callisto first to ordinary reporting systems, second to value design projects in computer/information system engineering, and third to large scale social movements and social media enterprises. Callisto stands out from other systems based on its exceptional value agency- a measure of a system’s societal reach, resource commitment, and value design engineering. As such, it provides a model for human rights and social justice campaigns.</p> 2017-10-24T10:28:06+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Privacy and Brain-Computer Interfaces: method and interim findings 2020-08-10T13:13:59+01:00 Kirsten Wahlstrom Ben Fairweather Helen Ashman <p>Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) are emerging technologies that acquire and translate neural data, applying that data to the control of other systems. Privacy has been identified as an ethical issue possibly arising from the use of BCIs. The research reported in this paper seeks to identify whether BCIs change privacy and if so, how and why. Interim findings are presented before outlining future research opportunities.</p> 2017-10-24T10:27:56+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Interdependent Privacy 2020-08-10T13:13:59+01:00 Tharntip Tawnie Chutikulrungsee Oliver Kisalay Burmeiste <p>Sharing on online social networks (OSNs) has rapidly emerged as a global phenomenon. Information that users share about one another has great impacts on impression formation, but also poses risks to the privacy of both users and non-users. Particularly, information disclosed by others (other-generated disclosure) is less deceptive and more credible than self-disclosure, challenges one’s desired self-presentation as well as self-image, and can cause face threats. So far, privacy literature on OSNs has focused on self-disclosure, and little attention has been paid to other-generated disclosure. Given this growing and increasingly important phenomenon, this present study explores other-generated disclosures, based on the lived experiences of adult Facebook users, to fill this gap. Using an online survey, results shows that Facebook users are likely to be exposed to other-generated disclosure not only through tags and photos but also posts and comments.&nbsp; Posts and comments are increasingly problematic. Not only will this study be useful for service providers in designing new features and improving privacy controls, but it also benefits organisations who take advantage of viral marketing and electronic word of mouth (eWOM), but in ways that seek to preserve the privacy of individuals.&nbsp; Furthermore, this study increases users’ privacy awareness and promotes meaningful online privacy practices to preserve not only privacy of individuals, but also privacy of engaging parties, due to the domino effect of interdependent privacy.</p> 2017-10-24T10:27:51+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Dynamic Technology Challenges Static Codes of Ethics 2020-08-10T13:14:03+01:00 Bo Brinkman Catherine Flick Don Gotterbarn Keith Miller Kate Vazansky Marty J. Wolf <p>We describe the process of changing and the changes being suggested for the ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct. In addition to addressing the technical and ethical basis for the proposed changes, we identify suggestions that commenters made in response to the first draft. We invite feedback on the proposed changes and on the suggestions that commenters made.</p> 2017-10-24T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Personal Data Sensitivity in Japan 2020-08-10T13:14:02+01:00 Yasunori Fukuta Kiyoshi Murata Andrew A. Adams Yohko Orito Ana María Lara Palma <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate how ordinary Japanese people perceive and understand data sensitivity and sensitive data. Although the concept of sensitive data is described in an article of Japan’s revised personal data act, following the EU Data Protection Directive and the new data protection rule, there has been little research on whether this legally defined concept conforms to the general public’s perception of sensitive data in Japan and, if not, what differences exist between them. Using empirical data acquired through a questionnaire survey and appropriate statistical methods, we sought to clarify empirically the features of data sensitivity as perceived by ordinary Japanese people. This exploratory research revealed that ordinary Japanese tended to feel relatively low sensitivity to personal data related to their civic activities, which are typically mentioned in the official explanation of sensitive data, but they tended to feel a higher degree of sensitivity regarding financial-related personal data, which were not ordinarily considered sensitive data.</p> 2017-10-24T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## How to make decisions with algorithms 2020-08-10T13:14:02+01:00 Anders Persson Iordanis Kavathatzopoulos <p>The use of automated decision-making support, such as algorithms within predictive analytics, will inevitably be more and more relevant, and affecting society. Sometimes it is good, and sometimes there seems to be negative effect, such as with discrimination. The solution focused on in this paper is how humans and algorithms, or ICT, could interact within ethical decision-making. What predictive analytics can produce is, arguably, mostly implicit knowledge, so what a human decision-maker could, possibly, help with is the explicit thought processes. This could be one way to conceptualize the interactive effect between humans and algorithms that could be fruitful. Presently there does not seem to be very much research regarding predictive analytics and ethical decisions, concerning this human-algorithm interaction. Rather it is often a focus on pure technological solutions, or with laws and regulation.</p> 2017-10-24T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ethical questions related to using netnography as research method 2020-08-10T13:14:00+01:00 Anne-Marie Tuikka Chau Nguyen Kai K. Kimppa <p>Netnography is a relatively new research method, which adapts research techniques of ethnography to study cultures and communities through computer-mediated communications. It has become a popular research method in marketing research during the early 21st century. However, the use of netnography in the field of information systems (later referred as IS) has not been studied to great extent. Thus, we have conducted a systematic literature review to investigate the ethical practices of netnographic research in the field of IS.</p> <p>To analyse the ethical practices of netnographic research and discussion surrounding it, we have collected 52 articles which use netnography either as their sole research method or as their completing research method. These articles were selected from 77 IS journals. Our findings indicate that netnography is an emerging research method which is still searching the shape of its ethical guidelines. Researchers, who use netnography, do not completely agree on the ethically just manner of conducting netnography. However, it is apparent that certain ways of conducting netnography are often considered to be ethically just where as some other ways might be often considered to not be ethically just.</p> 2017-10-24T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Why We Should Have Seen That Coming 2020-08-10T13:14:01+01:00 K.W Miller Marty J Wolf F.S. Grodzinsky <p>In this paper we examine the case of Tay, the Microsoft AI chatbot that was launched in March, 2016. After less than 24 hours, Microsoft shut down the experiment because the chatbot was generating tweets that were judged to be inappropriate since they included racist, sexist, and anti-Semitic language. We contend that the case of Tay illustrates a problem with the very nature of learning software (LS is a term that describes any software that changes its program in response to its interactions) that interacts directly with the public, and the developer’s role and responsibility associated with it. We make the case that when LS interacts directly with people or indirectly via social media, the developer has additional ethical responsibilities beyond those of standard software. There is an additional burden of care.</p> 2017-10-24T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## By Design 2020-08-10T13:14:01+01:00 Thessa Jensen <p>In lieu of an abstract a few words of warning. This story was originally written as a fanfiction. It has been cleared from explicit sex scenes, but might still challenge both the reader’s expectations for a fictional story and the very idea of a story exploring ethical design issues.</p> <p>The following tags and trigger warnings would be applied for this story on a fanfiction site: Suicidal Thoughts; Apparent Suicide; No Character Death; Artificial Intelligence; Angst; Hurt/Comfort.</p> 2017-10-24T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## On the Difficult Task of Teaching Computer Ethics to Engineers 2020-08-10T13:14:08+01:00 Norberto Patrignani Iordanis Kavathatzopoulos <p>This paper addresses the challenges of teaching computer ethics to engineers. The computer professionals are identified as the starting point of the stakeholders network of ICT and as a consequence it is underlined the importance of computer ethics courses for engineers. To this purpose, a simple four-steps methodology is proposed for teaching computer ethics. The importance of applying the paradigm of complex systems is then described and the three dimensions of Slow Tech (good, clean, and fair ICT) are proposed as a compass for designing complex socio-technical systems. Finally some preliminary results coming from the feedback of about some hundreds students in several years are illustrated.</p> 2017-09-01T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ethics of Information Education for Living with Robots 2020-08-10T13:14:08+01:00 Yuko Murakami Takeo Tatsumi Takushi Otani Yasunari Harada <p>ICT drastically changes our lifestyle. Education must keep up with the change to have our next generation to survive. This paper will first point out lack of unanimous ethical guideline on ICT with illustrations from the current educational practices in Japan, then claim that coherent policies need a coherent conceptual system. As any guidelines of information education reflect a value system, or ethical bases of our decision making, it is essential to invite civilians and non-professionals of ICT to commit themselves in research, development, and education from the early stages.</p> 2017-09-01T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Threats of the Internet of Things in a techo regulated society 2020-08-10T13:14:09+01:00 Eduardo Magrani <p>The promise of hyperconnectivity. Continuous interaction between gadgets, sensors and people points to the rising number of data being produced, stored and processed. On one hand, it may bring benefits to consumers, on the other, growing connectivity, accompanied by data overflow, can also challenge privacy and fundamental rights. This paper approaches some of the challenges faced by the rule of law posed by the advancement of the Internet of Things, which includes a wide variety of actors, most importantly private companies that seek to promote techno-regulation through design, algorithms and market-based contracts.</p> 2017-09-01T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## When AI goes to war: youth opinion, fictional reality and autonomous weapons 2020-08-10T13:14:09+01:00 Elvira Perez Rob Wortham Eugene Miakinkov <p>This paper relates the results of deliberation of youth juries about the use of autonomous weapons systems (AWS). The discourse that emerged from the juries centered on several key issues. The jurors expressed the importance of keeping the humans in the decision-making process when it comes to militarizing artificial intelligence, and that only humans are capable of moral agency. They discussed the perennial issue of control over AWS and possibility of something going wrong, either with software or hardware. Concerns over proliferation of AWS and possible arms race also entered the discussion and the jurors were skeptical about the possibility of regulation and compliance once AWS enter military arsenals. We conclude that the juries were very apprehensive and hostile to the introduction of autonomous weapons systems into military conflicts.</p> 2017-09-01T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The False Prometheus 2020-08-10T13:14:07+01:00 Janne Lahtiranta Sami Hyrynsalmi Jani Koskinen <p>In the information society of today, privacy is a premium service and user-related information a commodity. This development has gone unnoticed for many, but for some it contradicts with their common sense and perception of right and wrong. If we look into user agreements, and the effect Fair Information Practice Principles (FIPPs) seem to have, this development is particularly evident. One-on-one agreements such as End User License Agreements (EULAs) between the providers and users have become ubiquitous to most users who simply scroll through the agreement and click ‘I agree’ without actually understanding or caring what they have accepted.</p> <p>There are various reasons for this kind of behavior ranging from complete indifference, to inadequate internet and technology literacy, and even to peer pressure as certain applications have become a ‘must have’ amongst a group of users. This problem is particularly current as personal mobile devices have become important, for some even inseparable, part of our daily lives. These devices, such as smart phones and tablets, have also become <em>user-centered aggregation points</em> of information that contain personal, even sensitive information about us, and those around us. At the same time, the number of different applications that have practically unrestrained access to the Internet, is on the rise.</p> <p>When combined with ignorance and negligence, the risk of placing personal information into wrong hands is a very real one. In the following, we focus on this well-explored challenge from a novel perspective; informed consent, and argue that one way to address this problem is to develop solutions that not only promote personal choice and awareness, but are also context-dependent. In order to provide a practical insight into our primarily conceptual work, we use one of the most popular applications, the Pokémon GO by Niantic Inc., in highlighting some of the encountered privacy-related issues.</p> 2017-09-01T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## On the Taxonomy of Social Media Marketing 2020-08-10T13:14:06+01:00 Hiroshi Koga Sachiko Yanagihara <p>Marketing approaches using social media such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram or Line in Japan are attracting attention. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to attempt to categorize privacy issues in such social media marketing. Based on case studies of social media utilization that can be published and interview survey, we proposed a reference frame as a preliminary study. In this study, two types of dichotomy were used for classification. The first axis is that the relationship with customer’s need for social approval and self-esteem. The second axis is from the examination of sociomateliarity in the use of social media.</p> 2017-09-01T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Smart City Transcendent 2020-08-10T13:14:05+01:00 Brandt Dainow <p>This paper provides a conception of the smart city which takes into account what the smart city brings into the world which is new and original.&nbsp; This approach provides a means of dealing with the complex influences humans and digital systems will have on each other in the mature smart cities of the future.&nbsp; I will first review traditional accounts of the smart city and derive from them the essential characteristics common to these visions.&nbsp; I will then show how these characteristics can be best understood through Actor-network theory and construct an account of the smart city as an autopoietic system in which humans and devices are co-constituting actants.&nbsp; Finally I shall develop this into an original conception of the smart city as a new type of thing - an “integrated domain.”&nbsp;</p> 2017-09-01T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Review of Value-Conflicts in Cybersecurity 2020-08-10T13:14:05+01:00 Markus Christen Bert Gordijn Karsten Weber Ibo van de Poel Emad Yaghmaei <p>Cybersecurity is of capital importance in a world where economic and social processes increasingly rely on digital technology. Although the primary ethical motivation of cybersecurity is prevention of informational or physical harm, its enforcement can also entail conflicts with other moral values. This contribution provides an outline of value conflicts in cybersecurity based on a quantitative literature analysis and qualitative case studies. The aim is to demonstrate that the security-privacy-dichotomy—that still seems to dominate the ethics discourse based on our bibliometric analysis—is insufficient when discussing the ethical challenges of cybersecurity. Furthermore, we want to sketch how the notion of contextual integrity could help to better understand and mitigate such value conflicts.</p> 2017-09-01T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Is professional practice at risk following the Volkswagen and Tesla motors revelations? 2020-08-10T13:14:03+01:00 Simon Rogerson <p>With the world in economic crisis the headlong drive for efficiency and effectiveness together with resulting profit is the watchword. Such pressure might have resulted in real gains but has also led to unscrupulous or reckless actions. The tempering of such drive with ethical consideration is often neglected until there is a detrimental event causing public outcry which in turn places pressure on the actors to account for the reasons the event had occurred. This cause and effect map is commonplace. The Volkswagen emissions scandal and Tesla Motors public beta testing of the Autopilot software in their cars illustrate the drive for efficiency and effectiveness without proper ethical consideration. This paper focuses on the role of software engineers in such situations. An ethical analysis of the two cases is presented using the Software Engineering Code of Ethics and Professional Practice. The findings, together with previously published analyses, are used to draw general conclusions and recommendations about the efficacy of the software engineering profession.</p> 2017-09-01T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Editorial responsibilities arising from personalization algorithms 2020-08-10T13:14:06+01:00 Ansgar Koene Elvira Perez Helena Webb Menisha Patel Sofia Ceppi Marina Jirotka Derek McAuley <p>Social media platforms routinely apply personalization algorithms to ensure the content presented to the user is relevant and engaging. These algorithms are designed to prioritize and make some pieces of information more visible than others. However, there is typically no transparency in the criteria used for ranking the information, and more importantly, the consequences that the resulting content could have on users. Social media platforms argue that because they do not alter content, just reshape the way it is presented to the user, they are merely technological companies (not media companies). We highlight the value of a Responsible Research and innovation (RRI) approach to the design, implementation and use of personalization algorithms. Based on this and in combination with reasoned analysis and the use of case studies, we suggest that social media platforms should take editorial responsibility and adopt a code of ethics to promote corporate social responsibility.</p> 2017-09-01T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Inaugural Editorial 2020-08-10T13:14:04+01:00 Bernd Stahl Marina Jirotka <p>Responsible research and innovation (RRI) aims to ensure that the processes, outcomes and intentions of research are socially acceptable, desirable and sustainable (Von Schomberg, 2013). Recent political events, notably the UK’s vote to leave the European Union and the US election of Donald Trump as president underline the importance of these goals. The use of public funding for research and innovation, like most other government activities, can no longer be taken for granted. The ‘social contract for science’ (Jasanoff, 2011) that provided science funding and autonomy in exchange for trained researchers and innovation needs to be reflected upon and actively renewed. The public, users and other stakeholders need to be able to understand and contribute to the science and innovation system. RRI is an important way of achieving this.</p> 2017-09-01T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ethical Dimensions of User Centric Regulation 2020-08-10T13:14:11+01:00 Lachlan Urquhart <p>In this paper, we question the role of information technology (IT) designers in IT regulation. Through our concept of user centric regulation (UCR) we unpack what a closer alignment of IT design and regulation could mean. We also situate how they can respond to their ethical and legal duties to end users. Our concept asserts that human computer interaction (HCI) designers are now regulators and as designers are not traditionally involved in the practice of regulation hence the nature of their role is ill-defined. We believe designers need support in understanding what their new role entails, particularly managing ethical dimensions that go beyond law and compliance. We use conceptual analysis to consolidate perspectives from across Human Computer Interaction and Information Technology Law and Regulation, Computer Ethics, Philosophy of Technology, and beyond. We focus in this paper on the importance of mediation and responsibility and illustrate our argument by drawing on the emerging technological setting of smart cities.</p> 2017-08-31T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Who will rule the world in the future? 2020-08-10T13:14:12+01:00 Katerina Zdravkova <p>New technologies are dramatically changing human civilization in a way few could have imagined even at the end of the 20<sup>th</sup> century. And yet, many things will change even more. Very soon, computer intelligence will surpass the abilities of the human brain, genetic research and regenerative medicine will create practically immortal genetically enhanced humans with super-intelligence and superpowers, and natural people will become a minority in the world of human cyborgs. In such a new world, the supremacy of humans will be disputed. This paper presents the issues arising from the mind controlled devices, pointing out those viewpoints which might completely destroy, and those which can preserve the equilibrium of the world we live in.</p> 2017-08-31T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Rule of Law and EU Data Protection Legislation 2020-08-10T13:14:10+01:00 Denitza Toptchiyska <p>The article aims to analyse the evolution of the EU data protection legislation against the rule of law standards related to quality of law, formal justice and protection of human rights, focusing on some recent controversial issues related to the application of EU data protection model to technological environment. The analysis looks into the concepts of data controller and data processor as they are essential for the allocation of responsibilities in the processing of personal data as well as for the identification of applicable legislation. Further it considers the right to be forgotten and the implementation of the balance test in cases when there are opposing rights and legitimate interests of the data subject and data controller.&nbsp; The analysis is made on the basis of the EU data protection legislation,&nbsp; that is currently in force, the Opinions of the Article 29 Working Party and the case law of the Court of Justice of the EU (CJEU), which provides guidance on the uniform interpretation of the data protection concepts at EU level. The article also takes in consideration the current reform in the field of data protection in the frames of which in 2016 the new General Data Protection Regulation has been adopted.</p> 2017-08-31T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## More rational discourse for designing information systems 2020-08-10T13:14:10+01:00 Anne-Marie Tuikka Jani Koskinen <p>This article analyses the possibilities of using Habermasian rational discourse for designing information systems. We start by conceptualizing, how Habermasian rational discourse and participatory action research could be used for designing information systems. Then we question our initial concept based on our experiences and reflections from ongoing research project which aims to design new governmental information systems for parents of disabled children.</p> 2017-08-31T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##