The ORBIT Self-Assessment Tool

About Orbit

Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) aims to ensure the sustainability, acceptability and desirability of research processes and outputs. The ORBIT project is funded by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. Its purpose is to provide services to promote RRI across the UK ICT research community. It aims to move beyond ICT and the UK and will provide RRI services and knowledge to all interested parties.

This abstract is taken from the ORBIT Journal, to view the paper please click here.

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Ethical Design Fiction

About Orbit

Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) aims to ensure the sustainability, acceptability and desirability of research processes and outputs. The ORBIT project is funded by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. Its purpose is to provide services to promote RRI across the UK ICT research community. It aims to move beyond ICT and the UK and will provide RRI services and knowledge to all interested parties.

This abstract is taken from the ORBIT Journal, to view the paper please click here.

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Incorporating a Critical Reasoning Component into the ICT–Ethics Methodological Framework

  • Herman T Tavani Rivier University

Abstract

Is the standard/classic applied–ethics model used by philosophers adequate for analyzing issues in information and communication technology (ICT) ethics? A number of critics have argued that it is not, claiming instead that we need to revise and possibly also expand upon that model. In the various proposals advanced so far, however, no one has questioned whether we need to include an explicit critical reasoning (CR) component as part of an adequate ICT–ethics methodological framework. The purpose of the present study is to show why having such a component is not only useful but perhaps critical to ICT–ethics analysis. After defining what I mean by CR, and describing how it differs significantly from both formal logic and critical thinking, I show why incorporating a CR component can help us to achieve four of our key objectives as ICT–ethics professionals/instructors. First, CR provides us with a clear and systematic method for spotting logical fallacies, some of which might not initially seem either obvious or intuitive, in the various arguments that have been advanced to influence social policies affecting ICT. Second, CR provides us with techniques for testing our own arguments to ensure that they do not contain any logical fallacies. Third, CR provides us with a clear and fairly rigorous methodology for not only avoiding fallacies but also for constructing strong arguments to defend the views we advance. Finally, infusing a CR component into ICT–ethics courses will aid instructors in teaching their students how to detect and avoid logical fallacies, as well as teaching them how to construct strong arguments to defend their own positions on issues.

This abstract is taken from the ORBIT Journal, to view the paper please click here.

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Digital Privacy: Leibniz 2.0

  • Wade L. Robison Rochester Institute of Technology

Abstract

In 1963, Chief Justice Earl Warren called the ‘fantastic advances in the field of electronic communication’ a danger to the privacy of the individual. If we use the privacy torts as developed in American law — intrusion, disclosure, false light, appropriation — we can see how dangerous those advances have been regarding our privacy. We will see how readily so many can do so much more to invade the privacy of so many more. We will also see a thread running through the privacy torts that was not readily visible before: invasions of privacy treat us as objects to be observed, revealed, manipulated, and used.

This abstract is taken from the ORBIT Journal, to view the paper please click here.

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Exploring simulated game worlds

About Orbit

Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) aims to ensure the sustainability, acceptability and desirability of research processes and outputs. The ORBIT project is funded by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. Its purpose is to provide services to promote RRI across the UK ICT research community. It aims to move beyond ICT and the UK and will provide RRI services and knowledge to all interested parties.

This abstract is taken from the ORBIT Journal, to view the paper please click here.

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From a Science Fiction to the Reality

About Orbit

Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) aims to ensure the sustainability, acceptability and desirability of research processes and outputs. The ORBIT project is funded by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. Its purpose is to provide services to promote RRI across the UK ICT research community. It aims to move beyond ICT and the UK and will provide RRI services and knowledge to all interested parties.

This abstract is taken from the ORBIT Journal, to view the paper please click here.

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Callisto As a Value Agent

  • Stephen Lilley Sacred Heart University, Department of Sociology.
  • Amanda Moras Sacred Heart University, Department of Sociology.

Abstract

In this paper, we offer a case study of Callisto, an online site for sexual assault reporting, to highlight innovations in value design. We compare Callisto first to ordinary reporting systems, second to value design projects in computer/information system engineering, and third to large scale social movements and social media enterprises. Callisto stands out from other systems based on its exceptional value agency- a measure of a system’s societal reach, resource commitment, and value design engineering. As such, it provides a model for human rights and social justice campaigns.

This abstract is taken from the ORBIT Journal, to view the paper please click here.

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Privacy and Brain-Computer Interfaces: method and interim findings

About Orbit

Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) aims to ensure the sustainability, acceptability and desirability of research processes and outputs. The ORBIT project is funded by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. Its purpose is to provide services to promote RRI across the UK ICT research community. It aims to move beyond ICT and the UK and will provide RRI services and knowledge to all interested parties.

This abstract is taken from the ORBIT Journal, to view the paper please click here.

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Interdependent Privacy

  • Tharntip Tawnie Chutikulrungsee Charles Sturt University
  • Oliver Kisalay Burmeiste Charles Sturt University

Abstract

Sharing on online social networks (OSNs) has rapidly emerged as a global phenomenon. Information that users share about one another has great impacts on impression formation, but also poses risks to the privacy of both users and non-users. Particularly, information disclosed by others (other-generated disclosure) is less deceptive and more credible than self-disclosure, challenges one’s desired self-presentation as well as self-image, and can cause face threats. So far, privacy literature on OSNs has focused on self-disclosure, and little attention has been paid to other-generated disclosure. Given this growing and increasingly important phenomenon, this present study explores other-generated disclosures, based on the lived experiences of adult Facebook users, to fill this gap. Using an online survey, results shows that Facebook users are likely to be exposed to other-generated disclosure not only through tags and photos but also posts and comments.  Posts and comments are increasingly problematic. Not only will this study be useful for service providers in designing new features and improving privacy controls, but it also benefits organisations who take advantage of viral marketing and electronic word of mouth (eWOM), but in ways that seek to preserve the privacy of individuals.  Furthermore, this study increases users’ privacy awareness and promotes meaningful online privacy practices to preserve not only privacy of individuals, but also privacy of engaging parties, due to the domino effect of interdependent privacy.

This abstract is taken from the ORBIT Journal, to view the paper please click here.

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How to make decisions with algorithms

  • Anders Persson Uppsala University
  • Iordanis Kavathatzopoulos Uppsala University

Abstract

The use of automated decision-making support, such as algorithms within predictive analytics, will inevitably be more and more relevant, and affecting society. Sometimes it is good, and sometimes there seems to be negative effect, such as with discrimination. The solution focused on in this paper is how humans and algorithms, or ICT, could interact within ethical decision-making. What predictive analytics can produce is, arguably, mostly implicit knowledge, so what a human decision-maker could, possibly, help with is the explicit thought processes. This could be one way to conceptualize the interactive effect between humans and algorithms that could be fruitful. Presently there does not seem to be very much research regarding predictive analytics and ethical decisions, concerning this human-algorithm interaction. Rather it is often a focus on pure technological solutions, or with laws and regulation.

This abstract is taken from the ORBIT Journal, to view the paper please click here.

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